Teeth are attached to the bone by a soft tissue called periodontal ligament. The whole component is covered by the gums (Gingiva). In case of a gum diseases, symptoms like bleeding of gums during brushing, bad breath and loosening of teeth may occur. The first step in treating a gum disease is oral prophylaxis(ultrasonic cleaning of teeth) with root planing(removal of deposits hidden under the swollen gums).
When the disease has advanced, it crosses the gums and affects the periodontium. Such condition is called periodontitis. This is treated by curettage and flap repositioning surgeries. The outcome of the treatment can be augmented by placing grafts.